7.23.2020

New Dielectric materials Barium Copper Titanate, Calcium Silver Titanate

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We know Barium Titanate, and lesser Strontium titanate are great dielectrics.  Well Calcium Titanate also works as well, but not as good.

Someone had the bright idea to add copper to calcium titanate and made by far the best dielectric known.  Why?  Possibly because the copper is a source of electrons to move around to polarize the particles in the dielectric allowing for extreme capacity.  Also the copper could act as an electronegative element, allowing the compound to polarize better.  Perhaps a difference in electronegativity of closely packed (non-conductive, oxide containing) elements can help with polarizability.

So here are some new ones that will be even better than calcium copper titanate

Barium Silver Titanate

Barium Copper Titanate

Strontium Copper Titanate

Calcium Silver Titanate

Magnesium Silver Titanate

Barium Gold Titanate

Barium Silver Gold Titanate

Barium Gold Tungstate - could be the best, good electronegativity separations and large atoms.


Barium Gold Molybdenate

Barium Graphene Tungstate - Graphene is more electronegative than gold and might allow electron movement even better.  Graphene oxide should be used to prevent conduction and reduction of bandgap too much.

Barium Graphene Titanate - Higher bandgap materials may be needed and titanate has bandgap around 3.5 eV as opposed to tungstates 2.6 eVCalcium copper titanate dielectric of 3.9 eV and highest dielectric constant. I'm guessing that there may be a "perfect bandgap" of perhaps 4 eV for maximum dielectric constant.  Things like copper oxide or graphene oxide or silver oxide or gold oxide etc. can potentially lower high bandgap materials like calcium titanate materials into the perfect range.
etc.

Basically any alkaline earth metal, a electron rich metal, and titanate.

4TiO2 + CaCO3 + 3CuO → CaCu3Ti4O12 + CO2

 or more generally

4TiO2 + Alkaline earth Carbonate + 3(transition metal Oxide) → (alk.)(trans.)3Ti4O12 + CO2

Any of thes new compounds should be able to be produced under 2000c, likely around 1000-1500c.

So aaccording to this chart Alkaline metals have low electronegativity so are more likely to give up electrons.  Elements like copper, silver, gold, and the like have high electronegativity so would want to pull electrons.  Some other good candidates for the transitional metal oxides could be Cobalt, Ruthenium, Rhenium, Palladium, Rhenium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum, and of course Gold may be the best.  Perhaps a combination of Silver and Gold could be even better combining the electronegativity of Gold with the conductivity of Silver.  Perhaps having "jumps" in the electronegativities of the elements allows for high polarizability 1->1.5->1.9 in the case of calcium->titanium->copper.   Also perhaps the smaller size of calcium is needed since the copper throws off the crystal structure alignment which allowed for the bigger barium atoms to fit within.

Crystal structures:

 CALCIUM COPPER TITANATE

Blue are Copper, Teal are oxygen, and Red are Calcium.  Yellow blocks are titanates.

BARIUM TITANATE


Blue shapes are titanates, orange circle is barium



Calcium Copper Titanate Slideshow
https://www.slideshare.net/NandanKumar33/calcium-copper-titanate

Conductive fillers improve dielectric constant to insulators up to a point
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/calcium-titanate

calcium and strontium titanate bandgap around 3, so lower than calcium copper titanate
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2019/1612456/

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