An Artificial Leaf

We may think of a solar cell as an artificial leaf however it is pretty far from it.  In this invention I will lay out a chemical process that imitates how leaves actually create energy.  It borrows science from primarily nobel metal batteries (which I pioneered) as well as fuel cells, natural solar cells, flow batteries, and the like.  Basically all of our cutting edge battery technology goes into this invention, and even more technology will be integrated in the future, this is just the beginning.

So what is it exactly? 
The artificial leaf is at it's heart a nobel metal battery with a copper anode and a noble metal cathode like gold or most preferably iridium.  The cathode doesn't need to be pure nobel metal, a thin foil or electroplated nickel mesh would be perfect.

The second aspect is the separator.  It requires a sepqrator of some sort, whetther that be just distance or preferably a semipermeable membrane such as monolayer polypropylene or anything else.

Next there are two electrolytes on either side of the membrane or separator and eachis either contacting the anode or the cathode.  The similarity will be both are primarily hydrohalogen acids preferably or any form of halogen including ionic solutions or similar.  The difference is that the side contacting the cathode will contain oxidizing agents, oxygen and/or other gasses or something like oxygenated heme or or other fenton reagent.  On thr anode side the halogen preferably hydroacid will
Be coupled with one or more reducing agents.  This can be formic acid, lqctic acid l, acetic acid, hydrogen, and/or preferably a photosensitive additive such as anthocyanidins or chloryphyll or similar.  This means that when light hits this side it will gain electrons and become even more reductive leading to an even higher voltage.

And thats it.  Since we are using a nobel metal battery base it will be extremely easy to recharge even at very low voltages or even high voltages.  A transitional metal battery can also work where manganese or vanadium or iron or other transition metals can be used as the anode instead of copper and in that case non nobel metal cathodes can work and the battery wouod require only just over a volt to recharge.

Celgard 2400 separator
H2o2 and hcl on cathode side with a foam.

Billberry extract with hcl on anode side.

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