Nano Liposomal Hydroxyapatite: Biomimetic remineralizing material

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 In this invention Biomimetic ACP is defined as well as Liposomal Hydroxyapatite and they can be used for any use including most preferably to least preferably: Toothpaste, mouthwash, candies, chewing gum, gel, teeth powder, other dentifrice, supplements, foods, skin/hair care, or any other use.

Biogenic ACP (amorphous Calcium Phosphate) in Wikipedia:
"Biogenic ACP has been found in the inner ear of embryonic sharks, mammalian milk and dental enamel. However, whilst the unequivocal presence of ACP in bones and teeth is the subject of debate, there is evidence that transient amorphous precursors are involved in the development of bone and teeth.[3] The ACP in bovine milk is believed to involve calcium phosphate nanoclusters covered in a shell of casein phosphopeptides. A typical casein micelle of radius 100 nm contains around 10,000 casein molecules and 800 nanoclusters of ACP, each of an approximate diameter of 4.8 nm. The concentration of calcium phosphate is higher in milk than in serum, but it rarely forms deposits of insoluble phosphates.[5] Unfolded phosphopeptides are believed to sequester ACP nanoclusters,[6] and form stable complexes in other biofluids such as urine and blood serum, thus preventing deposition of insoluble calcium phosphates and calcification of soft tissue. In the laboratory, stored samples of formulations of artificial blood, serum, urine and milk (which approximate the pH of the naturally occurring fluid) deposit insoluble phosphates. The addition of suitable phosphopeptides prevents precipitation.[5]"

 Here is a great Nature article on the topic:

In that above article it says that calcium triphosphate is the precursor to amorphous calcium phosphate and it takes up calcium ions to transform to ACP.  So one could solubilize calcium triphosphate say with phospholipids or biomimetic stuctures (Biomimetic ACP) composed of lipids, saponins, and proteins/amino acids - then add soluble calcium phosphates such as tetracalcium phosphate to convert the solubilized calcium triphosphate into ACP.  This would be biogenic ACP and is what biology seems to use to mineralize.

Also lets look at another angle.  Nano-hydroxyapatite is also known to attach to enamel.  We have an easy precursor to that in octacalcium phosphate (OCP).  Octacalcium phosphate converts to hydroxyapatite (HAP) in elevated temperatures.  So what we can do is blend octacalcium phosphate in distilled water.  Add phospholipids, or a mimic that can be composed of any or all of the following: saponins, lecithins, protiens/amino acids, oils, thickeners, humectantss, etc. at an elevated temperature.  The temperature should preferably be above 37c but the lower the temperature above 37c, the smaller the HAP particles should be entrained into the liposomes or micelles.  As the OCP hydrolyzes into HAP, those small preferably nano molecules/clusters of HAP are caught up in the liposomes and held soluble for best remineralization capability.  This just so happens to automatically create a toothpaste or mouthwash in the process so these would be the best, but not only, uses for liposomal HAP.

Nano HAP remineralization:

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