6.22.2019

Give Karma: Open source coin made from UV Activated Ocean Plastic (UVAP)

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Clean up our oceans with Give Karma!

The most important thing is that Give Karma should always be given, never sold.  What makes it special is the only way you can recieve Give Karma is to either make it yourself or for someone to give it to you.  It's free to Give Karma.

Give Karma is a disc (coin, token, chip, whatever you want to call it) that is 50%, by volume, plastic taken from the ocean.  It is defined as a 50mm round that is 5mm thick. This means each one has 9.82 cc's of ocean plastic each.  Most will likely be made of PET at least initially since it is easy to grind, and PET has a density of 1.38g/cc.  PET is also not only the most common ocean plastic but also the hardest to degrade. Every coin has rougly 7.12g of ocean plastic each.

Roughly 21 trillion total can be minted with a tail supply emission of 1.12 trillion more per year (at the current rate).  This is a 5 and a third percent inflation, which just so happens to be the optimum amount, and 1 million times the supply as bitcoin.  Bitcoin is also considering a tail emission as well to prevent the perils of deflation.

This supply is based on 150 million metric tons (1.5 × 10^14 g) of ocean plastic exist currently with 8 million metric tons (8 × 10^12 g) added per year.  Tying a coin's inflation rate to real world consumption just so happens to be a perfect way to stabilize an economy.  The end result is that all ocean plastic would be used up as fast as it is created if this idea is a success.

Each coin is 50mm in diameter and 5mm thick and 1/2 of the volume (+/- 10%) is ocean plastic.  Each coin should have no part thicker than 5mm.  Any engraving should not cover more than half the coin surface area of either side and should be at a depth of no more than 0.3mm, this includes engraving on the rim.  Notice I say "should" as some experimentation is ok but we want each coin to be pretty uniform.  The engravings can be anything you want, from advertisements to art to fortunes or anything in between.  Get inspired by pogs.

Give Karma is, at a minimum, UV Activated Plastic (UVAP).  What this means is that the disc is designed to degrade in the sun.  Other degradation methods such as bio (bacteria/fungus/seeds) or thermal can be done also if desired.

This is accomplished with breaking down the plastic into a powder and mixing with special ingredients and then pressed into shape.  These UV activating ingredients can be anything so please experiment!  My recipie for the Give Karma I produce will be the following:

Half volume of powdered PET plastic sourced from the ocean

Half volume of the following:

100 parts Exfoliated vermiculite peroxide (photocatalyst, iron, oxidizer)
10 parts Bilberry extract powder (chelator)
5 parts Willow extract powder (adjunct to chelator)
5 parts Chamomile seeds (bioremediator)
2 parts lactobaccilis plantarum powder (bioremediator)

I will press it in a heated vacuum mold at 75c in a 20 ton press with vacuum applied.  Pressure will be held for 10 minutes to allow the sintering.

Photocatalysts like ZnO (non-nano), and absorbers/conductors like graphene would also be good to try.  Mushroom spores are worth exploring. Cellulose nitrate in small quantities may also be worth trying and see if it improves fenton oxidation efficiency.  TiO2 should not be tried because it is cancerous upon inhalation.  Every ingredient of Give Karma should be both safe to eat and breathe just to be safe.

My recipie above was designed to create a photo-fenton reaction.  The vermiculite is the iron source and also the matrix for the disk.  Also it is peroxidized (soaked in hydrogen peroxide for a time and evaporated to dryness) to oxidize the iron for the fenton reaction to proceed. The bilberry extract powder contains anthocyanins which can help keep the iron soluble and reactive.  The willow extract contains caffeic and ferullic acid which support the anthocyanins and produce color changing effects.  The lactobaccilis planarium is a harmless bacteria that contains enzymes that might degrade plastic.  The chamomile seeds will help convert the degraded plastic into bio-energy and provide something useful.  Also the seeds make sure the user buries it, which will ensure that full remediation is achieved.

The process an end user would have would be to spray the disk with water or put in a shallow tray of water in the sun for a few days to allow the plastic to degrade, then bury it to grow flowers from the embedded seeds.  This is an end-of-life use of the plastic so this plastic will never reach the oceans again, and if it does the sun will quickly degrade it.  This is in contrast to other products that use ocean plastic; eventually those products will likely make it right back into the ocean or a landfill again.

My notes:

Absorbers, photocatalysts, oxidizers, hydrolyzers

Exfoliated vermiculite peroxide (photocatalyst, iron, oxidizer)
Ocean Plastic powder
Bilberry extract powder
Willow extract powder
Chamomile seeds/Chicory seeds


https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.ecowatch.com/recycling-plastic-reality-2615116844.amp.html

Polyethylene degradation with catalyst
https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/6/e1501591

Ideas:

Pressing with clay and sintering

Pressing with sodium percarbonate

Pressing with silicon or other visible light bandgap material


Plastic uv degradation
https://www.coleparmer.com/tech-article/uv-properties-of-plastics

Clay semiconductor and photofenton
https://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjnano/articles/10/114


How do I get a GIVE coin?  Someone has to give one to you.


Lignin is a plastic
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable_plastic



Nitrocellulose or other nitrates?

Karma coin? Nah.  Mabye give karma.

Oxidation and hydrolysis for photodegradation

Graphene absorbs light and conduxts heat and electrons
https://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene-properties#.XQzZMsllDqA

Photo-fenton ferric hydroxide
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128104996000036

Photofenton highly efficient
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389407013179

Using photofenton as fertilizer
https://m.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=3m7-vS6yEOo

Ferrulic and caffeic acid with anthocyanin increases color over uv exposure.
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf0258306

Chicory seeds organic
https://www.everwilde.com/store/Cichorium-intybus-WildFlower-Seed.html

Photofenton ph and concentration, lower ph better or faster only?
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/fb84/53fd106823ba22664ea81da8742c0dbd9ff6.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjp5ZehvfriAhUpSN8KHQkgAXUQFjADegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw0HPUpP3bLS8sPF0k_8nlRR

Anthocyanin sources
http://www.artemis-international.com/products/bilberry/

Chamomile seeds small would be good
https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?title=Effect+of+different+planting+time+and+nitrogen+fertilizer+rates+on+flower+yield+and+its+components+in+German+chamomile+(Matricaria+recutita)&author=H.+Zeinali&author=M.+B.+Khoulanjani&author=A.+R.+Golparvar&author=M.+Jafarpour&author=A.+H.+Shiranirad&publication_year=2008#d=gs_qabs&u=%23p%3D-hbfffkVsCgJ

Lake ontario probably kaolin
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0380133096710079

Exfoliated vermiculite
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vermiculite

Vermiculite used in fenton
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169131712002153

Getting plastic to a powder
http://preciousplastic.com/

Shredder
https://bazar.preciousplastic.com/en/listings/745357-star-usa-star-shredding-machine

Marine organism microplastic
https://notwhalefood.com/marine-organisms-shred-plastic/

Lactobacillis plantarum
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09326-3

Lactobaccilis denitrification
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226736557_Landfill_Leachate_Treatment_Methods_A_Review/download

5% inflation good
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.forbes.com/sites/nathanlewis/2018/07/20/this-is-why-we-want-5-inflation/amp/

Glass transition temp lf PET is 70c

It may be possible to use a coffee grinder for PET since the glass transition is so high
but something like this micro-mill where you can control the temperature is ideal
https://www.belart.com/bel-art-h37250-0000-micro-mill-grinder-with-stainless-steel-blade-and-grinding-chamber-115vac-60-hz-30-oz-inches-torque-at-12-000-rpm-5-x-7-x-11.html

Heated press plates ebay
https://rover.ebay.com/rover/0/0/0?mpre=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ebay.com%2Fulk%2Fitm%2F263934304625

50mm pellet press die, contact seller if you want them to add vacuum ports which may cut down on sintering times and provide a stronger disk
https://rover.ebay.com/rover/0/0/0?mpre=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ebay.com%2Fulk%2Fitm%2F202299637485

20 ton hydraulic press.  You can probably get away with a 6 ton or even 2 ton press but the higher the pressure the faster the sinter and also higher quality disc you will produce.
https://www.harborfreight.com/20-ton-shop-press-32879.html

Source for ocean plastic:

https://www.parley.tv/oceanplastic#re_copy-of-ocean-plastic-program

https://www.oceansmade.com


6.19.2019

Artificial Inteligence (AI) will mine cryptocurrency in their dreams

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Sadly I didn't get this prediction posted sooner because this has happened much sooner than I expected.  AI bots will mine cryptocurrency as they sleep.  Sooner or later fully autonomous AI will wander the streets and air serving humanity (or their evil overlords). When a bot is running low on crypto that it uses to buy electricity, gasoline, or maintainence; it can mine some cryptocurrency.  I predict that every night as people sleep these bots will be dreaming of crypto (mining it that is).  As they can't serve humanity as much at night they will put those spare cycles to work mining primarily CPU only coins like monero, yenten, cranepay, and the future coins like my own coin idea of factorizations of large numbers.  My coin uses a GNFS sieve which makes it resistant to ASIC mining that currently runs bitcoin.  The GNFS method will favor AI, which uses a combination of graphics cards and processors in a sort of APU combination.  It will also favor mobile phones and other personal devices which all have a CPU and GPU.  This will help fend off against the botnets that can thrive on a cpu only mining method like monero.

Drones already mining Monero
https://www.google.com/amp/s/cryptoslate.com/bullet-stopping-drones-contribute-monero-network/amp/

My new proof of work number based on factorization of large numbers
http://www.naturehacker.org/2017/12/new-proof-of-work-pow-method-based-on.html

Which can be introduced to bitcoin as factorization of some multiple of the nonce
http://www.naturehacker.org/2017/11/prime-factorization-of-nonce-new-way-to.html?m=1

6.16.2019

Cold Iron: The mythological material reborn!

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After learning what I have about metallurgy, I am very confident I have decoded what the mythical "cold iron" was and why it was effective against the supernatural.

We know that pure iron is very good at magnetic permeability, which is the ability to control invisible magnetic fields which appear to effect the supernatural.  Also we know that the rapid cooling of iron into the form martensite or even amorphous (which is very hard) also enhances this effect of iron (like metglas)

The term cold iron likely came to be because it it feels colder than normal iron because this form conducts heat better and would feel cold to the touch.  Also it was impossible to forge because it was so hard.  The ancients likely figured the iron was inherently "cold" and couldn't be worked until it was heated up.  All iron is harder when cold but this iron would be extremely hard, order of magnitude harder. 

Where could the ancients have found this?  In meteorites that fell into the ocean.  The hot melting temperatures at reentry combined by the ultra fast cooling that takes place when it shoots through the cold water and that shock of it contacting the water would have produced an extremely hard or "cold" form of iron.  The nickel present in the meteorite would have made it easier for cold iron to form but here we are going to try to keep the iron pure so it is an even more effective magnetic field manipulator.

So to recreate this mythical material we need to do a few things.

1. Make austenite grain size as small as possible.  This not only helps martensite form initially, but also toughens the iron as well.

2. Rapid cool the iron from austenetic temperatures.  This induces martensetic formation because of the stresses induced.

3.  Compress or shock the iron during rapid cooling.  This helps give energy to form martensite.  Another way of looking at it is is creates more stresses in the material leading to more nucleation sites for the martensite.

4.  Create an electric current, perhaps pulsed, through the material.  This is known to help iron whiskers form which is even stronger and harder than martensite but will also helps martensite form.

5.  If you still can't get it to form you can add 4-30% nickel (or less) which will help the martensite to form but would reduce the cold iron's effect on magnetic fields greatly.

There can be an unlimited number of ways to achieve this but here is an example.

Process:

1. Use high purity (99.9%+) Iron powder

2.  Melt iron in suitable crucible in inert atmosphere furnace at around 1540c.

3.  Pour iron into Room Temp mold of your desired shape (lets say 4"x1"x1/8" investment casting mold)

4.  Immediatly drop that in dry ice-antifreeze (DIAF) bath.

5.  Recover iron bar and wash.  Add to austenetic temperature (930 c) inert gas furnace for 30 mins.  Immediately remove it from furnace and place metal between plates cooled to DIAF or liquid nitrogen temperature and compress to 40 tons (basically as many tons as possible).  Keep compressed for 15 minutes while actively cooling the plates if possible.  Repeat this step 3x.  This will sucessively reduce austenite grain size and leave us with hopefully high % martensite at the end.  Make sure on the last pass that the iron reaches full liquid nitrogen temperature.

7.  Compress bar at 40 tons (or as high as possible) and turn plate temperature to 150c.  Plates should be anodized if aluminum or coated with something to prevent electrical conductivity but allow thermal conductivity.  Attach pulsed or constant DC power supply with the negative wire at the tip of the future blade and the positive wire to the bottom (base) of the blade.  This will induce crystal formation starting at the tip to strengthen it. Paint all exposed surfaces of the metal and wire with high temperature paint to prevent any reaction with oxygen.  Let sit for 96 hours.  Quench in DIAF or liquid nitrogen.

8.  Grind into blade or other shape (like a cross) with a wet belt sander with ceramic grit.  Make sure temperature of the blade does not heat up while sanding, keep a bucket with ice water and dish soap nearby and after every pass dunk it in the water.  The dishsoap will help prevent rusting.

9.  Wash item well and coat with wax often

Whiskers grow from anode; current, compression, and elevated temperature induce growth
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.researchgate.net/publication/234898891_Tin_whisker_growth_driven_by_electrical_currents/amp

Electric current helped martensite formation
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02670836.2017.1304619

Electropulse increased hardness and strength
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://oro.open.ac.uk/47196/1/stabilityofmartensite_1-s2.0-S0921509316310590-main.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjDzs-R0e7iAhUFwVkKHXJHDwwQFjACegQIBhAB&usg=AOvVaw102ejdxcZgJMY-C13IR_PN

NASA searching for cold iron
https://www.google.com/amp/s/mashable.com/article/nasa-meteorite-pacific-ocean-exploration.amp

99.95% pure iron chunks
https://www.surepure.com/Iron-chunks-3-4-inch-and-down-99.95Percent-pure/p/6723

6.15.2019

Manna Steel: The internet age alloy

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So I decided to revisit the Wootz steel topic and did a dozen hours of research and learned a LOT.  Turns out wootz steel isn't as great as modern alloys but there are a couple tricks from it to use like the embedded carbon nano tubes.  The banding of ferrite and cementite is a great idea since one is hard and one is ductile, however in practice it doesn't give as sharp or as strong of a blade as current methods.  The only reason wootz wasn't unusably soft is because it is high in phosphorus.  Phosphorous seriously hardens steel and also gives some corrosion resistance.  So the slow cooling and therefore large band formation was likely done to make the high phosphorus hard steel workable at all.

Manna steel is my attempt to make the highest tech purest steel in existance.  What I do is use the cutting edge modern metallurgy and combine it with the ancient carbon nano tube tech from wootz damascus steel.  These nanotubes should enhance the toughness of the steel.

Currently I plan to make this steel and do 3 tests on it: Rockwell hardness test, homemade weight drop impact test, and tension test.

The carbon nano tubes will have to improve one of these testing values, here at Naturehacker the theory is great, but results are all that really matter.

So here is the recipie and process:

Per 100g:

98.2g high purity iron 99.9%+

1.8g dried tannin impregnated sugarcane chopped/ground finely (this can be ommited entirely in this process and if it is, the resultant material is the mythical "cold iron".  Cold iron was likely iron metorites that fell into the ocean and the fast cooling likely created martenistic structure that is hard as steel)

(Carbon nano structures and silicon carbide whiskers and iron whiskers can also be added at any concentration but we are attempting to form them in the process itself, plus adding them raw would likely cause them to be dissolved in the iron melt anyway.  We are doing process steps to enhance the creation of these nano structures)

Mix well

Thats it!  The real magic in the temperature control.  Why high purity iron?  We want this to be very reproducible and any impurities would interfere with our process and the steel quality.

The sugarcane is chopped/ground with an herb grinder/coffee grinder then dried.  A concentrated black tea is made and the dry sugarcane is added to a pot with the concentrated tea added and it is cooked down until the sugarcane has the tannins absorbed and everything is dry.  The dry sugarcane should contain roughly 50% carbon so we are shooting for .9% carbon to make sure we are at least .76% carbon.  Since we will quench very fast, bieng over .76 carbon won't be a big drawback.  Sugarcane was selected for its fibrous structure like the plants that were added to wootz steel.  Sugar also will help provide carbon for nanotube growth.  Tannins along with iron help catalyze the nanotube formation.  In addition it contains some silicon (3% of the plant) which will lead to about .08% silicon in the steel.  This silicon reduces cementite inclusions from us bieng hypereutectoid and also may graphetize some of the carbon which will lubricate the blade.  Also the silicon may provide a bit of corrosion resistance.

Process:

The mixture is melted in a suitable crucible in an inert gas furnace to 1540c for 4 hours.  This is to allow the steel to melt and become homogenous.

Next it is poured out in a mold the shape and thickness of an object like a knife.

Immediatly the mold and steel is quenched  in a combination of dry ice and antifreeze/water 50/50 mix (DIAF).  This is done to keep grain structure as fine as possible with the fast cooling and also get a full transformation from austenite to martensite.  These cycles between austenite can be done under pressure if possible, at high enough pressure (3-5 Gpa) carbon isn't even needed to achieve high hardness.  Also an electrical field may help induce iron whisker formation.

Next the steel is placed at 740c (inert atmosphere if possible) for 40 mins.  This is to convert the grains back to austenite.

The steel is quickly quenched in the DIAF bath.  This shock causes micro fractures and breaks the grains into smaller grains.

Steel is again placed at 740c for 40 mins to convert the now smaller grains back to austenite.

Steel is again quenched in DIAF for smaller grains.

Steel is again placed at 740c for 40 mins.

Steel is again quenched in DIAF and let sit for 1 hour this time to ensure full conversion to martensite from austenite. 

Now the steel should have very small grain martensite.

If grinding say a basic blade shape (but not beveling), reheat to 740c for 30 mins and let air cool.  Doing that at this step will alow you to grind a softer steel but with the small grains.  Do not attempt to put an edge on the blade at this step, that should be done at the end.  After grinding reheat to 740c for 40 mins and quench in DIAF.  This step can be avoided by making the original casting in the shape you want from the beginning.  It may be possible to grind a rough edge in this step if using an inert gas furnace to prevent carbon loss at the thin edge, but still the results won't be uniform throughout the steel since some parts are thinner than others.

Next temper the steel at 150c for 96 hours then quench in DIAF.  Typical tempering is 190-205c or 260c for 4 hours however lower temperatures for longer always results in more orderly crystal growth.  The hope is increase in toughness while keeping almost all the hardness.  Hardness expected the be Rc 60+ after this process and toughness should be high from small crystals and also carbon nano tubes.  Holloman-Jaffe equation used to calculate the time based on equivalency of 260c for 4 hours.  May be worthwhile heat treating under compression with heated plates on a 20-40 ton press or any tonnage.  Also applying a electrically insulative yet thermally conductive coating on the plates and applying a voltage of any size can help form iron whiskers.

If making a blade grind the edge and finish (polish) at this step bieng sure to keep the knife under 100c (every pass on the sander cool in cold water with detergent before continuing).  Ideally use a wet sanding belt ideally zirconium.

Below is my research:

-------------------

Manna steel: bringing wootz into the internet age advanced metallurgy

Iron looses magnetism 770c.  Letting sit at 912c will help mix the atoms for better diffusion? Or vary bwtween open pack and close packed structure in annealing for diffusion

https://www.futurity.org/melting-iron-858942/

1700c, 1600 inert furnace
https://cmfurnaces.com/furnace/series-1700/

Heat treating graph
https://www.efunda.com/processes/heat_treat/softening/annealing.cfm

The longer the anneal the more diffusion and softer it becomes.  So start with very high carbon and/or hot/cold short steel and super long dendritic anneal will soften.

Phosphorus causes cold short perhaps wootz was a way around the cold shortness
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/phosphorus-content

High phosphorus in wootz
http://materials.iisc.ernet.in/~wootz/heritage/WOOTZ.htm

Widmanstatten steel
http://www.engineeringenotes.com/metallurgy/steel/widmanstatten-structure-of-steels-formation-and-control-metallurgy/25939

Wootz is advanced material
http://materials.iisc.ernet.in/~wootz/heritage/WOOTZ.htm

How to grow grains and etch
http://www.engineeringenotes.com/metallurgy/steel/austenitic-grain-size-of-steel-metallurgy/25901

Fine pearlite harder than course
https://www.quora.com/Why-does-fine-pearlite-has-more-hardness-than-coarse-pearlite

More about the grains
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://web.utk.edu/~prack/MSE%2520300/FeC.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiassbEvOviAhUOTawKHbfsDNwQFjAKegQIAhAB&usg=AOvVaw3R8p48QrnyIZcDJro6_Y3G

So from here I relaize that we want to grow large austenite grains then skip the austenite cementite part because that moves Cementite outaide the grain.  We want cememtite only inside the grain then convert diretly to pearlite.  That way the grain boundaries are non existant.  This can be done with a perfectly eutectic amount of carbon (.76% well dispersed) or by just fast quenching of the austenite.   We will do the latter since not all our carbon will dissolve and some will be nano tubes so we need to overshoot the eutectic point since we are not sure how much of our carbon will actually form cementite.  Since we will overshoot to around 1.5% carbon, we will just assume we need a fast quench to keep the austenite grain structure without cementite around the borders.

The austenite should be as large as possible, even a single crystal would be great. 

Vanadium slows crystal growth so we might want that to make the finest pearlite possible or just grow the perlite at a low temp that still allows diffusion to happen.

Creating bainite and martensite
http://www.virginia.edu/bohr/mse209/chapter10.htm

So basically after this I relaize we want extremely large austenite crystals (so long time in austenite temp range) then we want to cool super rapidly into martensite.  Then we want to temper at 250-650 c for ultra fine pearlite. (lower better for thin bands which are better)

Also I am realizing that having the super fine microstructure will negate the need for the high phosphorus to harden it.  Vanadium also isn't needed if we use low temperatures.  Boron also isn't needed to harden the ferrite phase since that phase is so thin.  Tantalum also won't be needed to form carbides since the iron should take up all the carbon well.  Mabye they could be added in the future at low amounts but for now our heat treatments should be sufficient.  I still do want to keep the silica from the sugarcane to graphetize some of the carbon for a self lubricating finish.

So 1540c to melt in inert atmosphere for 3 hours to make sure carbon nanotubes form.
Then rapid cool to 1100c or lower.  Then set at 1100c for 12 hours (can be tuned to be lowerset temp depending if we can get reliable carbon percentage.  Ultimately we want to be as closr to the low transition temp as possible without going over it.  The closer we get the more uniform the crystal structure will be and therefore stronger).  Then we want a rapid cool to 300c or lower.  Set at 300c for 72 hours to grow ultra fine bands.  These will not be visible to the naked eye.


To start we will use simply pure iron and carbon (graphene for uniform distribution and low ash content).

0.76% carbon so eutectoid steel.

Melt at 1540c (or higher) in inert atmosphere for 3 hours to ensure uniform carbon distribution and no carbon loss from burning.

Super fast cool into martensite

Soak (anneal) at minimum 727c, more like 735c (roughly +10c) to be safe for 72 hours for large as possible and uniform as possible (from relatively low temp) austenite crystal grains.  This converts hopefully uniform martensite to large and uniform austenite crystals.

Super fast cool into martensite

Soak (temper) at 205 to 250c, say 240c for 72 hours

Cooling and martesenite
http://www.gowelding.com/met/carbon.htm

How single crystals are made
https://www.theengineer.co.uk/rolls-royce-single-crystal-turbine-blade/

Single crystals without special cooling several hours just below melting point
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-10/ifbs-pdm101718.php

Austenite and martensite
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/materials-science/austenite

Austenite grain size does matternjin martesenite
https://www.bladesmithsforum.com/index.php?/topic/13846-structure-of-martensite/

Tempering 205c to 250c max to avoid embrittlement
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempering_(metallurgy)#Physical_processes

Meta crystals in design
https://www.designnews.com/materials-assembly/meta-crystals-make-materials-tougher-and-lighter/168232725860387

Effects of alloying elements on steel
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://online.tugraz.at/tug_online/voe_main2.getvolltext%3FpCurrPk%3D32837&ved=2ahUKEwj34Jvc9uviAhXKmq0KHYB2C2MQFjALegQIAhAB&usg=AOvVaw3vrzDu_m5xodch7SuErcpq

Rust free iron pillar of delhi- high phosphorus
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_pillar_of_Delhi

Silica reduces cementite inclusions and also cementite increases corrosion
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/cementite

SO start with point steel then introduce silica later on then introduce sugarcane and tannins.

Prior austenite grain size smaller better, niobium helps
https://www.niobelcon.com/NiobelCon/niobium/niobium_in_automotive_flat_steel/auto_martensitic_steel/tough_martensite/

But austenite needs coarse grains to create martensite upon cooling
http://www.engineeringenotes.com/metallurgy/steel/austenitic-grain-size-of-steel-metallurgy/25901

So turns out we don't want to grow the austenite grains much, just enough so we can form martensite at our cooling rate.  Also we want the grains to be high uniformity so it must sit slightly above the austenization temperature for a while.

Grain coarsening temp is over 1000c
https://www.scientific.net/AMR.213.600

How grains form and eutectoid best hardness
https://knifesteelnerds.com/2019/02/25/how-fast-do-you-have-to-quench-hardenability-of-steel/

Liquid nitrogen quenching
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryogenic_hardening

How to get fine grained steel with additives
https://www.google.com/amp/s/pmpaspeakingofprecision.com/2009/11/24/5-ways-fine-austenitic-grain-size-affects-your-machine-shop/amp/

So you want to have fine grained austenite and quench super fast so you can achieve martensite then temper at 205c ish over a long period.

Smaller grains more impact tough at given hardness
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/carbon-steel-blades-and-grain-size.1503062/

Quenching leads to small grain size also parameters
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.researchgate.net/post/Why_quenching_in_steel_leads_to_reduction_in_grain_size_whereas_in_case_of_aluminium_it_increases_the_grain_size/amp

Reducing grain size with annealing and quenching
https://www.bladesmithsforum.com/index.php?/topic/27264-when-exactly-is-grain-size-reduced/

So looks like the best process is quench super fast from as high temp as possible after melting.  Then anneal at 735c for 45 mins.  Quench super fast.  Anneal at 735 for 45 minutes.  Quench super fast.  Temper at 205c for 9 hours.

Super fast quenching should be antifreeze and dry ice.


What is happening is the first quench assures smallest possible starting grain size.  The next anneal creates our starting austenite grains.  Subsequent quenching induces fractures in the grains as the grains convert to martensite.  Then when annealed at above the 727c austenite temp for eutectoid steel these fractures become new smaller grains.  Doing this twice assures we are getting roughly the minimum grain size possible.  The final quench from austenite gives us martensite structure which is based on the final grain size.  This is extremely hard and brittle.  Next we tenper the steel at 150c for 72 hours to achieve increased toughness without sacrificing much hardness.

190-205c temper for 4 hours
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/temper-too-long.645024/

Cryo treating
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/deep-cryogenic-tempering.1311938/

Eutectoid types
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/working-the-three-steel-types.673173/

1095 vs 1083
http://www.knifenetwork.com/forum/showthread.php?t=58969

So I think I am going straight to the big guns and using sugarcane with tannins as a carbon source.  I will shoot for .9% carbon so perhaps calibrating by carbonizing the sugarcane in inert atmosphere and testing carbon content.  Since we will have a super fast quench in dry ice antifreeze, we can go a little hypereutectoid.  Reason for sugarcane and tannins is the silica and potential for nanotube formation.

For testing need hardness tester and charpy impact tester and tensile tester.

Rockwell tester $1000
https://www.ebay.com/itm/HFS-R-Rockwell-Hardness-Tester-Gauge-Load-150-Kgf-Includes-Accessories-/272761552335

Tensile tester around $1300
https://rover.ebay.com/rover/0/0/0?mpre=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ebay.com%2Fulk%2Fitm%2F291842516122

Make my own drop test impact tester.

Improving toughness process
https://books.google.com/books?id=noe78HLQR4cC&pg=PA168&lpg=PA168&dq=tempering+at+180c&source=bl&ots=oRr1X3m7lS&sig=ACfU3U2yqt1KKMs0MZI39PIclZT2p8djHw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwie7cjw3e3iAhWywFkKHXlwAOIQ6AEwAXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=tempering%20at%20180c&f=false

We want the equivalent temper of 260c for 4 hours.  Mabye 150c for 72 hours?
http://baronespecialtysteel.com/?page_id=170

Rapid quench after temper then cryo tenper time logarithmic and temperature is linear time temp equation!
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/tempering-temperature-time-relationship.1520037/

http://mmm.sjtu.edu.cn/userfiles/1/files/2008-96_Canale.pdf

Hardness = T(C+log(t))

1000= 260(C)+260log(4)

1000=260c+156

844=260c

C=3.25

Or (500-156)/260
C=1.32

1000=150*3.25+150log(x)

1000=487.5+150logx

512.5/150=logx
3.41=logx
10^3.41=x
X=2570

Or 500=150×1.32+150logx
2.01=logx

So ya lets say around 96 hours

Heat treating before or after grinding
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/heat-treat-before-or-after-grinding.514695/

Grind after HT with wet zirconium belt
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/hamons-and-grinding-after-heat-treat.1187810/

Point is grind bevel after HT to avoid problems
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/heat-treat-then-start-the-grind.1126340/

60 grit blaze 180 grit gator fine green scotchbrite belt for polishing
https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/heat-treat-then-start-the-grind.1126340/page-2

Heat treatment under presure greatly increases martensite
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21663831.2019.1612792

Can we get iron whiskers to form? Possibly just add silicon carbide whiskers since they dint degrade at steel melting temps
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/ceramic-whisker

Silicon carbide whiskers are about twice as strong as iron whiskers so we will just use those.  Can be added around 5-60% optimuly around 20%?
http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=RE32843.PN.&OS=PN/RE32843&RS=PN/RE32843

Silicon cadbide basically dissolves in molten iron so that probably wont work.  Mabye we can get some produced by the sugarcane but im not going to add more.
https://www.washingtonmills.com/silicon-carbide/sic-properties

https://www.cheegoole.com/application-silicon-carbide-steelmaking/

Whisker formation theory
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/1430806

Electrostatic theory of whisker formation
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.7689&ved=2ahUKEwihxLeYpe7iAhWmxVkKHfPQDEkQFjAAegQIAhAB&usg=AOvVaw0X7QUHVyNH6eSbbYNifxq5

Smaller austenite grains reduces martensite start temp
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/martensite-start-temperature

Also high pressure reduces martensite start temperature
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21663831.2019.1612792

So get super small grains and use high pressure to achueve martensite in pure iron

Nickel also reduces martensite start temperature
https://page-one.springer.com/pdf/preview/10.1007/BF03377892

So cold iron will be no nickel and sky iron will be 4-30% nickel, optimum around 8, 10, or 11%.

Permeabilities of different iron nickel alloys
https://www.softmagneticalloy.com/soft_magnetic_alloys.html

Iron has much higher saturation than nickel
https://www.jstor.org/stable/77809?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

So nickel has a detrimental effect not only on magnetic permeability but also on saturation of magnetics.

Small grain size helps start martensite but slows it down after 30%
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264127519300620

6.12.2019

Tangle Theory: Beaver Dams, Wootz steel, Friction, and beyond

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Hate tangles?  What if I told you tangles are among the most cutting edge science in the universe.

A tangle isn't nessesarily chaos.  A tangle is one or more objects that resist bieng separated.  There are many industries where we absolutely want tangles and we work extremely hard to create them.  Take your shirt.  If the cotton (hopefully not synthetic) fibers you are wearing in your shirt weren't tangled your shirt would fall apart.  If the wood and mud weren't tangled up in a beaver dam, it would break.  If the carbon fibers weren't tangled in carbon fiber composite, it would shatter.  Tangles are an integral part in almost everything that is made.

Completely random tangles are probably best however they are extremely hard to reliably create.  You have to make sure that the tangle is in fact exactly random and that there are enough objects tangled to reliably support stress in any direction.  A weave is a very powerful type of tangle that is relatively easy to make, however a weave is strongest only in certain directions.  We see the weave tangle in clothes, carbon and glass fiber, beaver dams, etc.

We can use tangle theory to improve structural components easily.  For example if we are making multi layer carbon fiber, or even bullet proof vests, we can leverage tangle theory to improve them.  The more we can get the sheets of kevlar or other materials in bullet proof vests to want to tangle or stick together, the better the force of the bullet can be absorbed.  The better we can get sheets of carbon fiber to interact with each other, the stronger the material will be.  In wootz steel (what makes traditional damascus blades) the better we can get carbon nanotubes to tangle up in the steel, the sharper and stronger the blade can be. And of course cement. Guess why rebar and stones and sand are used?  More reasons than one and also making cement as dry as possible and packing it down hard allows for the best tangles between materials.

The entire field of material science and even propulsion (friction is required for motion and it is a tangle, listen up NASA) is either tangles, or can be improved with tangles.  Where there are no tangles in a material, always remember that there probably should be, and you will come up with genius ideas.

PS: Want to make a road but all you have to work with is mud?  Take a lesson from the tangle master, the beaver, and get big tangles of brush to bury in the mud.  Rose bushes are the best as the thorns really make the brush not want to be separated; the essence of a great tangle. :)

6.11.2019

Hemochromatosis: Plebotomies are deadly for arrhythmia patients natural cure

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Not only does Plebotomy - removing blood from a patient - take out red blood cells containing iron, but it also removes serum which is a large portion of the bodies protien reserve.  For arrhythmia or heart skipping beats, this can be deadly as the body needs all this protien to support a healthy heart and fight hpylori which causes arrhythmia and ulcers.  These patients may also have tachycardia which worsens the disease.

To naturally treat tachycardia take natures fury (1 part tribulus terrestris extract, 3 parts gynostemma or ginseng extract).  For arrhythmia take agrimony herb powder.

To naturally treat hemochromatosis iron overload without dangerous phlebotomies my current mixture I encapsulate is: (pure bulk is best supplier)

3 parts Ip6
2 parts grape seed extract (95% proanthocyanins)
2 parts green tea extract (50% polyphenols)
1 parts pomegranate extract (90% ellagic acid)
1/2 part bilberry extract (25% anthocyanins)
1 1/2 parts natures fury
1 part agrimony
1/2 part garlic
1/2 part thyme
1/2 part mustard

I take at least one 00 capsule of this every meal.

Treating hemochromatosis naturally like this ensures that the bodies protien stores are not depleted and also hemoglobin does not decrease either.

The natures fury (recipie above) helps increase the bioavailability of the recipie.  Also it kills gram positive bacteria that would otherwidse degrade ip6.  The agrimony herb powder kills hpylori that causes arrhythmia and other problems like ulcers.  The garlic powder kills mycobacteria which can cause stabbing heart and lung pain and also corynebacteria which seems to cause heartburn in conjunction with hpylori.  Thyme and mustard powders kill gram negative bacteria like ecoli which break down ip6 as well.


Case study arrhrythmia
https://www.toomuchiron.ca/iron-chronicles/darryl/

6.06.2019

The NatureHacker Prophecy

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Well boys?  This is how this all goes down.  Strap in we are in for a wild ride.

Where are we in history?  We are in a very important time.  The importance of this time in history is extremely rare however it is not the end of the world, nor is it the most extreme catastrophic period.

We are at the end of an epoch and just beginning the next since 2013.  Is this based on the mayan calendar ending in 2012?  No it isn't at all, but this makes me think the Mayans were somehow aware of these epochs as well as the early christians were via John the Beloved's Revelation.

We are at the 4th seal of Revelation 6.  Each seal was 666 years since 15 AD.  Each epoch is denoted by the same comet of various names such as Negra/ISON, etc.  Each orbit of this comet is 666 years. Each seal represents a pass of this comet and an upheaval of power.  The first seal was the rough beginning of the Roman empire (15 AD), second seal was the rough beginning of the Islamic caliphate (681 AD), third seal was the rough beginning of the Rothschild Internationalist (globalist) banking order (1347 AD) which period began with the black plague which killed 1/3 population in 3 years. The color black (black horseman) described in Revelation denotes the color of the comet this pass, and it was named comet Negra because it had a black hue.  This black hue is likely from Iron and large amounts of iron vapor likely entered the atmosphere when going through this comets tail.  This iron supercharged Yersinia bacteria, the bubonic plague bacteria.  Hemochromatosis or iron overload also traces its origins back to this time in history. The fourth seal is the Age of Cults (2013 AD) and where the previous power brokers vie against one another for power.  Imperialism, Islam, and Internationalism (3 I's) or Conquest, Caliphate, and Central Banking (3 C's).  In this age 1/4 of the population will be killed with the war, famine, disease, and wild beasts.  The pale (greek word means green) horse denotes the color of the comet, lets call it the Seven Seals Comet (SSC).  As it was known this pass as ISON, yes the color was pale green.  This should also be marked with Hades following closely behind the Pale Comet.  Hades is the wandering planet also known as Nibiru or Pluto (wrongly named) or planet X, so we should be watching for that to appear.  We went through the tail of ISON and recieved megatons of the potent toxin Cyanide into our atmosphere, so this may cause disaster in terms of disease on our planet.  Nationalism (Conquest) with the Queen and Britian leaving the EU and Trump taking up nationalism will battle with the Central Bankers (the people leading the EU and the UN), and Islam will join the battle for power as well as the catholic church which is also a vestige of the roman empire.

So now we know we are in a new age and that this age will be marred with war, hunger, disease, and wild animals and I believed ruled by cults as most people pick a side.  However there are 2 more factors that also add to this prophecy and help us understand how this will all unfold; the revelation 12 sign and the upcoming mini ice age.

Revelation 12 sign.  For the revelation 12 sign to line up almost exactly with the new epoch is pretty astounding.  Revelation 12 signs are quite rare (appear every several hundred years).  One happened in 2017.  Whithin around 7 years of a Revelation 12 sign there is a beast and antichrist.  What lines up with this is the great solar eclipses that X out the USA centered on illinois one in 2017 and one in 2024.  These portend the coming Antichrist here in the US in 2024.  I believe the Antichrist will be President Martin O'Malley who pays homage to the Beast Xi Jinping who is the beast of this age.   Again I must reiterate this is not the end of the world, beasts and antichrists arise every time the Revelation 12 sign appears in the heavens, and it has happened several times before, use Stellarium to find them in history.  Every time a Revelation 12 sign appears, historically roughly 7 years persecution and many times killing of Christians begins.  My estimation is that Islam is used by the Antichrist to kill christians starting around 2024.  Also to buy or sell you have to get a mark.  In other Rev 12 periods these marks were papers given by emperors or other things.  In this age I expect it to be a literal high tech invisible tattoo given on the hand or forehead in order to buy or sell.  We are even noticing even now people bieng "debanked" for bieng prominent conservatives.  This will go into overdrive in 2024.

And lastly we are entering a mini ice age that will reach its peak in 2030.  We are about to experience 2 more weak solar cycles (each one is roughly 10 years). In this time we will have global cooling brought on by lower solar activity and increased volcanism which restricts light that reaches the earth.  Also typically in these times upheavels and wars happen, so expect that between now and 2040.  Also superstition goes rampant in this time so the way Christians are likely to be persecuted this time will be as "climate deniers".  All this strange weather (which will not be global warming induced at all, but rather Solar induced) will be blamed on global warming and anyone who denies global warming and votes against carbon initiatives will be seen as the problem and the reason we can't implement "planet saving" carbon restrictions.  We will be targeted.  This persecution will likely start around 2024.  Ice ages also lead to favoring genetics of larger animals, so in this period we will likely see the return of large menacing creatures we thought were extinct.  What we have to realize is that according to my GVR (genetic vector resevoir) theory is that genetics are never lost on this planet and will make a resurgance when the conditions favor them.  These large ice age creatures are what could lead to the deaths of people to wild animals in this fourth seal.  Also it seems animals like sharks and crocodiles are becoming more aggressive and vicious as the ice age begins here in 2019.  Expect dire wolves and mabye even wooly elephants.



And that's about all I have for you.  I have written about many of these topics before on this blog so please refer to my previous posts for more info, eventually I will make a "Prophecy" category that you will be able to find at the bottom of the webpage and sort by all of my prophecy posts.

Oh and by the way the economy will collapse as soon (within a couple months) of the feds lowering interest rates. It always happens every time. (grey bars in graph below are recessions). Likely will happen around September of this year just in time to embarrass Trump for the Election. No doubt election interference by the FED.


Comet Negra
http://www.fivedoves.com/letters/nov2013/reneem1118.htm

6.02.2019

The first step to freedom is to admit that you are a slave

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They say that the first step to recovery is to admit that you have a problem.

I admit that I am a slave and there is nothing I can do to break myself free.

Sure there are a few people who are strong enough to learn basic survival skills and go to a part of the earth that is not patrolled by the globalist or nationalist jackboots that will forceably remove you and destroy everything you have built and collected...and survive there.  Someplace like alaska or siberia or something.  There is a lot to learn to be able to survive there even for 1 year and all that knowlege and culture has been stripped from us.

But the vast majority of us simply aren't strong enough to live without our slavemaster overlords.  Our extended captivity leaves us useless and devoid of the knowlege and experience we would need to survive on our own and it has also robbed us of the community that is essential for life to exist outside our societal prison.  We need eachother to have an abundant life and others living together outside society doesn't exisit, and if it does exist like eskimos in alaska, we as non-natives aren't welcome for the most part to join their society.

So what can we do?  The most common thing a living thing does in captivity is let itself die.  Look at Julian Assange for example.  Look at the depression and suicide in our society.  That is actually a natural response to opression.  The most dignified way in my opinion is to just not have kids.

However that isn't even the best way to fight back.  Even if there is no possibility of you yourself winning and breaking free from the matrix, you can help to put humanity on track to eventually break free from captivity.  Help a little.

Help make peoples lives a little bit easier and give them tools to empower themselves.  Charge as little as you can for your product.  Help someone in need.  Try to empower people and encourage their ideas and dreams.  Cure a disease with herbal medicine. You see, the stronger we get collectively, the closer we are to breaking out of this prison.

So even though you and I won't make it, and perhaps we hedge our bets by not procreating, the more we empower others the closer we all get to becoming free.