The Ionic Jet Engine: The High Level Design





So here I will describe an Ionic FanJet (TurboFan) Engine but you can extrapolate to what an Ionic Jet Engine and a Ionic TurboJet Engine would be like.  Below is a picture and I will describe it below.

What we have here is a Ionic FanJet Engine and I will describe the parts.  The light grey is high bismuth shroud around the main power producing part (power plant) of the engine. Bismuth repels magnetic fields so will keep our plasma confined within the shroud and away from the wall reducing drag.  It can be pure bismuth or likely would be layers of bismuth with magnesium and zinc to lower weight.  Also on the inside face or embedded in this bismuth shroud would be electromagnets (or permanent magnets).  These electromagnets are producing a magnetic field that (by turning on and off the electromagnets in a synchronized pattern) spins around the power plant in an opposite direction to the fan angle of attack.  This opposite direction and opposite angle of attack acts like a "Magnetic Stator" that squeezes the plasma backwards in the power plant out the back.  Electro or permanent magnets in the center (in the shaft?) can be used to improve/tune the magnetic field but are not necessary.  In addition to the field acting like a stator, it also donates magnetic field lines to the plasma thus magnetizing the plasma and helping it to work even in low pressure environments (like a solar flare in space) and improving control-ability (keeping it way from walls and reducing drag).  Plasma magnetizes itself by spinning in a spiral but this should magnetize it even more than typical.  Dusty plasma is cool as it can cause cold fusion, but typically cold fusion is a energy consuming not energy creating process so we should probably keep dust to a minimum (and the ionic charges can work like a Ionic Air purifier!).

Within this power plant we have Wet Ionic Jet Fans.  Wet in this case means they emit fuel on their leading face.  This fuel is not "burned" in the traditional sense but achieves a cool flame (plasma) state from electric oxidation of the fuel.  Cool Flames typically are not 100% efficient, but having the multiple Wet Ionic Jet Fan stages will help improve efficiency.

Also behind the power-plant is a Dry Ionic Fan (optional) which helps finish oxidation of remaining unused fuel.  The addition of fresh high oxygen intake air to this fan will help complete oxidation of the products produced in the power plant.  Alternatively if extra power is needed, this fan can be run wet as well but at a loss of fuel efficiency (acting like an afterburner).  This fan can power itself as an Ionic Fan can, or can be connected to the (optional) shaft driven primarily by the powerplant.

In front of the power plant we have another Dry Ionic Fan.  Again, this can also be run wet but at the (less likely) expense of reduced fuel efficiency.  However if the Ionic Fan at the back of the engine is run dry, this front engine can be run wet at likely pretty good but not the best efficiency.  Wet Jet Fans operating in the powerplant with the magnetic field will always have the best efficiency.  The main goal of this front fan is the same in a typical FanJet Engine to pressurize the intake air and use some torque from the powerplant to create additional thrust via the optional shaft.  This front ionic fan can also be run separately if desired as Ionic fans can produce their own torque.  If it is found the powerplant needs to run at a higher pressure, then multiple stage inlet fans can be used just like a typical jet engine to achieve the correct pressure.

Notice the front of the engine is positively charged and the rear is negatively charged.  Of course the Wet and Dry Ionic Jet Fans also have their own charges, but charging the high level container as well will help propel the engine toward the direction of positive charge via generating more ionic wind that goes out the back of the engine improving thrust.  Also this negative charge at the exhaust helps lower drag of the gasses on the back of the engine. (Aside: the backside (negative) side of the blades and backside of the engine as a whole will likely get charged dust stuck to it, but should easily clean off.)

So we have a setup that looks very similar to a TurboFan Engine.  So what makes this "better" than a typical jet engine?  Well first of all it is much more fuel efficient.  Using our "Ionic Jet Fan" invention as the powerhouse/motor of this Jet engine, efficiency should likely be quite high because not only is the fuel atomized, but "plasmatized" for optimal energy extraction.  Also it runs cooler.  Using Cool Flame (plasma) technology, the engine and exhaust should be just warm.  It should be very quiet as well.  It is also a hybrid.  The use of electrical power (high voltage, probably best produced on demand by a flux capacitor which could be in series with the engine, but can be supplied fully or partially via batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, or anything else) in addition to chemical fuel allows us to use very diverse fuels that are less in demand (some ideas are a butane/wax combo, turpentine, turpentine+wax, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide/telluride, etc.) and also improve the efficiency of utilizing our electrical power and chemical fuels via synergy.

This is the technology of Flying Cars! (Obviously they would be on the 4 corners (or 2 front 1 back) pointed upwards and they would gimble slightly to steer.  I do not envision horizontal ones but of course they could be used.  Horizontal would work well in traditional winged aircraft or craft that goes through any other medium including water, aether, etc.  Also horizontal orientation would work well in "car mode" where the car is on unpowered wheels.  Of course some or all of this technology can be used in more typical jet engines for any purpose and at any place in the system.


The Ionic Jet Fan (Plasma Jet)




Instead of combusting fuel like a typical jet or rocket engine, the Ionic Jet (or Ionic Rocket) instead uses "Cool Flame" (Plasma) technology by oxidizing the fuel with electric (or triboelectric) charge (pulsed or direct) instead of igniting it directly.  The vaporized fuel can be pressurized to improve the Cool Flame effect but this is not required.

Below is an example of a preferred embodiment (fan blade crossection):

In this embodiment (Ionic Jet Fan) a wing/blade is wherein the ionic jet effect takes place.  Fuel within the blade (solid, liquid, or gas) is expelled from the front of the blade (passively or actively), and passes over positive charged surface (preferably square pyramid in form) which oxidizes the fuel (chemical oxidizers and/or catalysts can also be used on the surface or within the stream itself in addition to or instead of positive electrical charge).  Incoming air streams help to pressurize this gas improving the "cool flame" effect.  The oxidized fuel (and oxidized air mixed in) is now attracted to the negative charge on the back of the blade.  This causes an ionic wind, but the addition of the oxidation of the fuel creates a much stronger ionic wind that is jet-like in nature.  The surrounding boundary layer of air also surrounds and confines the oxidized stream causing a jet-engine like effect.  The negative charge on the back of the blade not only attracts the oxidized fuel products, but also helps neutralize them, therefore reducing drag on the backside of the blade increasing lift.

Ionic Rockets and Jets can be built just like normal rockets and jets the only difference being that instead of sparking or igniting a fuel/oxidizer mixture, the ionic version simply electrically oxidizes the fuel (or fuel/air or fuel/gas or fuel/catalyst or fuel/oxidizer or a combination) using high voltage (optionally in combination with chemical oxidizers/catalysts) .   A "Cool Flame" effect will likely always be seen in such a setup and may be preferred.  Also preferably there would be a negative charge that directs the oxidized fuel toward it; improving thrust and helps neutralize it which reduces drag.

In our preferred embodiment this would be used to increase the power of - or power on it's own - A fan or other rotary device that moves or grips any medium, or a generator that is moved by a medium.  It can also be used to power, increase lift, or otherwise improve, a directional craft such as a plane or a boat.  See my Ionic Fan invention as well.

This technology may also create or improve invisibility or other stealth abilities.  This would depend on what fuel is used and preferably would be a superconducting gas such as hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen telluride.  The cooler the flame, the likely better the effects on light.

Of course the incoming air can be pressurized if desired by any means, and this would create an Ionic TurboJet.  In the case of the ionic jet fan, one of these means could be a fan in series pressurizing the air before arriving at the ionic jet fan assembly.

Also the Voltage between the negative and positive sides could be adjusted based on speed/pressure or other factors to help prevent electrical arcing from the backside to frontside of the blade.

Below is a similar invention but it uses microwaves to ionize pressurized air and it ignites it with a spark.  This is significantly different from what we describe here, but still shows that the principle is valid.

Marvin Carlson's Comment on the above video showing that Cool Flame technology is more efficient than hot flames (makes sense, less energy is directed into heat and more into thrust)

"I worked on something like this at Boeing in the 1980's for other applications. Too much power consumption was the result then and now. A magnetron is about 65% efficient and all you are doing is heating air. It is more efficient if you are going to make a controlled plasma is to seed jet fuel with potassium salts (or ammonium salts) and you also get heated ionized air. Ionization gives some superior control issues, nut is lower in efficiency as energy goes into making the plasma. The lower temperatures push larger volumes for the same fuel and is more thermodynamically (energy) efficient. minimum energy into a reaction mass is .5m+v^2 in joules is the energy and thrust is m*v in newton seconds . The slower the reaction mass is the more thrust per unit of energy ( 2v newton-seconds per joule). the trick is to speed up more mass with less velocity and get more efficiency. that is how fan jets work to be more efficient than turbojets or ram jets. This system looks to be less efficient than any of the fan jet turbo jet or ram jet. Rockets use a different measure of efficiency use of MASS where jets measure ENERGY efficiency in terms of watts per newton of thrust."

We may want to use cone shape with the smaller hole outside on the surface for expelling the fuel to prevent as much air coming in


Magnetic fields could help this, we can put this in a Magnetic Unity setup (Central magnet with lots of electromagnets around a duct that turn on and off and create spiral magnetic field around the central magnet, this can also help spin the fan) to create spiral magnetic fields above and below a wing/fan helping to keep the "cool flame" focused.  Thanks to comment of "The Survivalist" on youtube "You need to pulse it, and to eject the plasma using magnets".


The Ionic Fan - or any other rotating device that creates lift or drag

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This idea can work for a rotating device or a directional device like a wing or float etc.

So we know there are a couple ways to drive a fan.  One way is from a combustion engine like the radiator cooling fan on cars.  The most common way is with an electric motor.  There is also a jet engine.

Well lets think of some more interesting ways.  You can have a rocket powered fan.  Something like the below.

This would work but would be very fuel inefficient.  Jet engines were designed to improve fuel efficiency of fuel being combusted.

Little spinner ion motors work just like the above picture but with I believe negative ion flows instead of combusted gasses/fuel coming out the back.

But what if we could make an ionic fan better.  See the below video.

So I have been saying this for a while in my fan posts (see randomization and movement tag).  But I have been saying we need positive charge on the front surface of the fan blade and negative charge on the back surface.  I didn't realize until now that this would actually power our fan as well!  See the picture below for an explanation.

The video above shows the principle, as the positive ions on the front of the blade are attracted to the negative ions on the back of the blade, it accelerates the air backward and just like a rocket this powers the blade forward.  Intuitively I knew that donating electrons to the air on the back of our blade would help and stealing electrons from air on the front of the blade would help based on how Teflon works to reduce drag and our Theory of Friction. Also we have an article on the faster air is going on the backside (top) of the blade and the slower it is going on the front side (bottom), the more lift we create.  But now we realize this principle can actually power our fan, no motor needed, just a high voltage power supply!

What are the brown spikes on the front of the fan?  These are square pyramid shapes.  We know based on triboelectricity that this is the most efficient shape for harvesting electricity from moving air.  We also need the sharp points that this shape provides to give places for the positive ions to gather.  I think the reason why the pyramid shape is best because it gets the best contact with the air but at the same time doesn't make the flow too turbulent.

It is possible from the rear negatively charged face (these can be charged in any way desired using any materials) to have pyramids as well to improve ion wind flow but make the voltage attained without reaching air breakdown and shorting the front positive surface to the rear negative. 

This is flying cars and hoverboards and flying bikes!  The technology is here!  Other uses can include fans, drones, helicopters, planes, model planes, and anything that gains traction within any medium including liquids, any gasses, aether or anything else.

Of course a hybrid system with motor or combustion and charged blades would probably end up being best. The charged blade can increase the RPM and/or lift the system achieves under alternate power, instead of the ionic wind from the charge differential to power it itself.

The charges on the surfaces can be gained actively (power supply or any other generator/storage of charge) or passively by the medium, chemical interactions, chemical coatings (like teflon), tribocharging materials, etc.  Likely a bird wing would have a more negatively tribocharging surface on the top of the wing and a positive turbocharging surface on the bottom of the wing to improve lift.

Possibility: We know that electric antigravity works and positive charge (or maybe it's negative) on the bottom of something will repel the earth's gravity (which itself is just a charge).  So this fact will make our ionic fan not only self powered from only a high voltage blowing air downward and giving us lift, but electrical antigravity in a stable version!  The rotation of the fan gives us gyroscopic effect we would need to stabilize our antigravity craft.

 PSS: It turns out that antigravity typically works with the craft being pulled toward the positive charge.  So this would make our craft want to go down instead of up.  Reversing the charges might be beneficial with the negative on the front/bottom and positive on the back/top.  It is worth trying. 

Here is a very similar patent but this has the electrode and counter electrode nearby each-other in a spaced relationship, mine places them together on the same blade in a physically connected (but not electrically connected) relationship. Thus sufficiently different than the Adrian Leta Patent.  Also this close relationship (as opposed to spaced) makes it easier for us to achieve a high electric field and voltage since the closer charges are together the greater electric field can be achieved.

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The NatureHacker Vertical Axis wind turbine

This is sort of a combination of the H-Rotor and the Darrieus Vertical axis Wind Turbine ideas.  Also this uses all the understanding we have had in the past about wing and blade design.  

I feel the picture above is self explanatory but let me try to explain design decisions.  As many of these blade systems can be used on the shaft as desired by the designer.  They can be inline with each other or staggered vertically on the shaft (which may resemble a sort of Savonius design).

Firstly the outer vertical wing is shaped in (at least) 2 dimensions.  Looking at the side view it is a teardrop shape.  This is because we don't need vertical lift in this direction, just getting some pressure buildup on the front of it and allowing the air to flow easily around leading to less risk of loosing the boundary layer along the back which would hurt us.  Also air moving the wrong direction (left to right in the picture) would do less work on the foil.  From the top view you can see the outer vertical wing is also shaped like a wing in this dimension as well.  This is to also increase drag a bit but the main purpose is to divert air "inwards" instead of flinging it off the sides of the propeller.  This also helps to keep air in the path of the next blade that comes around.

The inner horizontal wings connect the outer vertical wing to the rotor.  These wings, as seen in the picture, will be right side up on the top, omni-directional in the middle, and upside down on the bottom edge.  Again on the top and bottom edge we want to prevent loss of the boundary layer.  We want ripples or bumps (or preferably square pyramids) along the surfaces on the inside as this increases drag (with minimal disturbance to the flow) which we want.  Also notice that the angles will compress the air that enters the wing array the "correct" way but if the air is moving left to right instead it is more closed off (and thus aerodynamic) and expands the air which would lead to much less force being imparted in the wrong direction.

In conclusion a casual observer would think that the Savonius design is the best possible vertical rotor wind turbine.  This would be wrong because we have to realize that the maximum possible effect we can get is by disturbing the airflow as little as possible.  It is about efficiency, not just trying to "stop the wind" like the savonius does.  We want to receive energy from the wind while also keeping boundary layer/laminar flow intact because loosing the boundary layer acts against us.

This idea can also be combined with triboelectrics and use mediums like water or even plasma or aether instead of air.