7.09.2020

Naya Rivera of Glee likely died of Hydrogen Cyanide exposure leading to drowning

Sadly I think I may have found out what contributed to Naya Rivera's Drowning.  A poisoning autopsy needs to be done.

The evidence we have is that her 4 year old boy has stated that he and his mom were swimming together and that she never got back to the boat.  Also that his mom jumped in the water and never came back up.


We also know that her son was found sleeping in the boat. While Sleepiness is a common symptom of cyanide poisoning.

We know that Lake Piru was in the cross-hairs of authorities for it's quagga mussel infestation.  We know authorities had been debating adding a "potassium solution" *(see explanation at the bottom) to poison the mussels which would also kill the fish and cause things that eat the fish to die as well.

Strangely this 2015 article above talking about the imminent poisoning of lake piru was taken down and we can only access it through an archive.  Do I smell a coverup?  If authorities did go ahead and poison the lake it would make sense they would want to erase all mention of this.

At the bottom of this post I detail how hydrogen cyanide could be produced in the lake and bubble to the surface.  But also here I want to explain how Hydrogen Sulfide also could be produced with the chemicals added to the lake.  Copper sulfate is proven and known to have been dumped in the lake in large amounts in 2019.  Many bacteria can reduce the sulfate in the lake into hydrogen sulfide.  Hydrogen sulfide, as opposed to hydrogen cyanide, is heavier than air and can concentrate on the surface of the lake.

Whether Hydrogen Sulfide or Hydrogen Cyanide or both is to blame is mostly irrelevant.  They both have similar highly poisonous effects that could have contributed to drownings on the lake.  Methods to test the theory could be a gas sniffer or also see if the lake smells of rotten eggs or sweet almond, but our nose looses sensitivity quickly so not many people may be able to smell it.

This would mean that hydrogen cyanide and/or hydrogen sulfide exposure in the lake could have been an exacerbating cause in her drowning.  We also know that low visibility in the water (only 6-10 inches - video-) could have also been a contributing factor.

When you jump in the water several things can go wrong.  If you land awkwardly you can get shocked and disoriented.  If there is low visibility in the water you may not be able to quickly discern which way is up and not know which way to go.  Couple that with low level cyanide exposure (especially if hydrogen cyanide gas is the culprit since the cyanide in the entire lake would all bubble up to the surface) which can cause confusion, weakness, and sleepiness, and you have a recipe for disaster.

Lets hope that the family completes a toxicology autopsy and gets to the root cause of their daughters death and can prevent future incidents like this from happening.

*Turns out this potassium solution is really just Potassium Chloride so it is harmless to humans.  However it appears that massive amounts of industrial Copper Sulfate was actually dumped in the lake, and this copper sulfate might have had cyanide contamination if it was recovered from mining
After "removing the cyanide" from the copper/gold solutions from mining, the metals are exposed to sulfuric acid which creates copper sulfate which can be recovered (and sold as industrial copper sulfate).  It may undoubtedly contain traces of cyanide from the previous process and when you are dumping tons of the chemical into waterways, the total cyanide is potentially catastrophic.

The lake needs to be tested for dangerous chemicals including Cyanide, sulfide, and others. If it tests high then signs need to be posted and the public notified.  Even small amounts of cyanide in the water can outgas as Hydrogen Cyanide gas concentrating on the surface of the lake, putting everyone on the lake at risk. 

7.08.2020

It's possible that the African Dust can bring back the Rocky Mountain Locust

The Rocky Mountain Locust is an extinct species of American Locust whose huge swarms ravaged fields in various states in the centuries prior.

"Because locusts are a form of grasshopper that appear when grasshopper populations reach high densities, it was theorized that M. spretus might not be extinct, that "solitary phase" individuals of a migratory grasshopper might be able to turn into the Rocky Mountain locust given the right environmental conditions; however, breeding experiments using many grasshopper species in high-density environments failed to invoke the famous insect."

It appears that certain genes need to be reintroduced to local grasshopper populations to invoke swarming as seen with locust species.

"It has been hypothesized that plowing and irrigation by settlers as well as trampling by cattle and other farm animals near streams and rivers in the Rocky Mountains destroyed their eggs in the areas they permanently lived, which ultimately caused their demise.[14] For example, reports from this era suggest that farmers killed over 150 egg cases per square inch while plowing, harrowing or flooding.[14]:11–12 It appeared that this species lived and reproduced in the prairie only temporarily during swarming years, with each generation being smaller than the previous one and swarming ever further from the Rocky Mountains,[15] while the permanent breeding grounds of this species seemed to be restricted to an area somewhere between 3 to 3,000 square miles of sandy soils near streams and rivers in the Rockies, which coincided with arable and pastoral lands exploited by settlers.[14]"

The Rocky Mountain Locust can come back.  Especially with the rise of national parks, national forests, and the like - This will provide a perfect breeding ground for the species to make a comeback.


Rocky Mountain Locust Habitat coincides with State and National Protected Land

"They also switched to such resilient crops as winter wheat, which matured in the early summer, before locusts were able to migrate. These new agricultural practices effectively reduced the threat of locusts and greatly contributed to the species' downfall.[13]"

Farmers adapted at the time by switching to growing early season crops to deter locust spread.  However in America currently in the 21st century much more corn is grown than winter wheat leaving us open to another outbreak.

"Breeding in sandy areas and thriving in hot and dry conditions, they were often guaranteed a good food supply by prairie plants which concentrate sugars in their stalks in times of drought. Movement of the locusts was probably assisted by a low-level jet stream that persists through much of central North America.[citation needed]"

We are currently in a major drought in 2020 This means the conditions in north America are now ripe for another locust infestation.


Locusts bury their eggs only 1-4 inches underground, very commonly in sand. Recall that locusts have been swarming in huge numbers in africa and laying massive amounts of eggs recently. We know that with strong winds in africa these eggs could easily be excavated and carried by the winds to the north american continent as we have seen in the past weeks.


It may only be a matter of time before local populations of african locust interbreed with populations of solitary grasshoppers in america, and introduce genes needed for swarming and thus the comeback of the Rocky Mountain Locust.  With the advent and rise of areas in the rockies and elsewhere where people cannot till the land or graze cattle like the national parks, we may already be on borrowed time before the next locust outbreaks on the american continent.

7.07.2020

How Peroxide Speeds up Remineralization and Cement Forming

Again thanks to Johan Nygren for doing most of the work to figure out the mechanism of how Peroxide can speed up remineralization.  He sent me this picture (click on it to go to the source)

https://books.google.cz/books?id=vnDSfpK_-EsC&pg=PA134&lpg=PA134&dq=hydroxyapatite+formation+hydrogen+ion&source=bl&ots=uTe-SoJ4Gz&sig=ACfU3U3U4fIBk3eHGAORh3z1FlVJk930Ww&hl=sv&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2y8PdwbPqAhVS66QKHc2RBCoQ6AEwBHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=hydroxyapatite%20formation%20hydrogen%20ion&f=false


 Basically the limiting factor to remineralization is the removal of H+ ions.  This typically isn't a big problem since hydroxyapatite powder has an OH- molecule which can react with the H+ released forming water, however this is not a free floating OH and is bound to the hydroxyapatite molecule.  Since it is bound it is less apt to react with H+ ions, especially when Ca ions are blocking it, see below picture.

So how would peroxide or hydrogen peroxide help this process?  Peroxide reacts with an OH molecule to produce electrons. These free electrons can quickly and easily react with H+ ions forming H2 gas.  While simple OH- of the hydroxyapatite will absorb the H+ ions released during remineralization, it is slower as the H+ ions will have to diffuse all the way to the backside of the hydroxyapatite molecule (nano or micro particles) to be absorbed.  If instead H2O2 is already reacting with the OH molecules "shooting" electrons wherever they are needed, the process of remineralization can be faster.

In basic medium:

Let me try to explain better.  H+ ions are released when a particle of hydroxyapatite bonds to a enamel surface.  Now these H+ ions can interfere with the attachment because their generation immediately cause the linkage between the hydroxyapatite and the enamel to break.  In order to push remineralization forward, we need to get rid of these H+ ions.  The H+ ions would typically have to travel all the way to a part on the hydroxyapatite molecule that is not bonding with the enamel to be absorbed to it's OH- without interfering with the attachment.  If instead of waiting for this diffusion of H+ ions to happen, we could instead use hydrogen peroxide to preemptively react with the OH- and create free electrons that can travel right to where they are needed and convert the H+ ions released instantly into H2 gas, thus speeding up the remineralization process.

When it comes to hydroxyapatite in dentifrices like teeth powder and toothpaste and mouthwash, time is critical since you only have a couple minutes for remineralization to happen.  Thus nHApP or Nano Hydroxyapatite Peroxide would be an ideal ingredient for these uses.  Also hydrogen peroxide or other peroxides such as magnesium peroxide or sodium percarbonate can work as well to support the remineralization of hydroxyapatite.


7.05.2020

Staybl 0.8

Per liter, take up to 4 liters a day.  Can be carbonated

FOS 1.6g (may need to reduce for mouthfeel, ribose reduces thickness)
Potassium phosphate dibasic 1.6g (718mg potassium .4489)
Glycine 1.5g
Potassium Gluconate 1.5g (250mg potassium .1669)
Glucoronolactone 0.5g (was 1.3 lowered for bad flavor)
Mannose 1g (good flavor can't raise amount)
Magnesium Citrate 1g  (112mg magnesium .1123)
Calcium HMB 0.8g (200mg calcium .2533)
Ribose 1.5g (was .6 raised for flavor and reduced thickness)
Inositol 0.4g (was .3 raised for flavor)
Sodium Citrate 0.2g (46mg of sodium .23)
Taurine 0.05g (flavor mild)

magnesium 112mg 448mg
calcium 200mg 800mg
sodium 46mg 184mg
potassium 968mg 3872mg

Only 186 mg of sodium needed a day
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/sodium-per-day#recommendations

700 mg enough calcium per day
https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/how-much-calcium-do-you-really-need

4700 mg of potassium however this is with high sodium intake
https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/changes-you-can-make-to-manage-high-blood-pressure/how-potassium-can-help-control-high-blood-pressure

magnesium over 400mg is good
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/