UltraWood 5: Petrified wood

Petrified wood is another ultrawood.  Petrified wood is easy to make and the patents on it expired in 2006.  Basically in my view here is the real process:

Soak wood in silicate solution

Let lignin degrade and the released carboxilic acids neutralizing the silicate (extra acid like citric or malic acid can be used to speed up the process if desired) transforming it into silica gel, preferably at an increased temperature with steam or warm water vapor present to prevent drying out and allow silica gel to crystalize into quartz.

Let dry out.  Repeat process as necessary.

Basically what is happening is you are creating quartz crystal within the wood.

This process can also use steps from other ultrawood posts or other steps entirely.  Some examples could be oxalic acid bath, hydroxide and/or urea baths, etc.

My current process would be:

Oxalic acid boil till wood sinks then boil in water wash

hydroxide/urea at room temp and/or freeze then no wash

oxalic acid boil then boil in water wash

silicate (with hydrogen peroxide if desired to help break lignin into acids) room temp soak

renove most of liquid and hold in moist environment for lignin to neutralize silicate to form silicagel.

oven dry at 300c or press at 300c till dry.

Uses for this could again be similar to other ultrawood types however this will be harder than those but more brittle.  Uses could include cutting and piercing items like knives arrowheards as well as grips like knife grips and gun grips.  Also would be great for floors and countertops.  Can add certain minerals to the sodium silicate to produce unique colors.

great article

silica group


Wind Repulsion (WR): How to minimize air resistance

As first described in my "A theory of friction" post, here this technology will be refered to as "Wind Repulsion" or "Wind Repulsion Technology" or "Wind Repulsive" or WR for short.

Wind repulsion (WR) is defined as using a surface charge, preferably negative, in order to repel specifically air.  It can also be used for other fluids as described in "a theory of friction" or even surfaces (like ski and snowboard bottoms, bearings, gears, bushings, etc.) however WR is specific to air so we can dig deeper into how exactly to achieve results in this specific medium, since air resistance is the most important form of resistance that we deal with in planes, trains, automobiles, ships, bikes, rockets, bullets,  etc

Any method to generate or maintain or set up a surface charge on something that will be exposed to relatively moving air is the claim of WR.

Teflon is an example of WR.  Teflon maintains electrons on its surface and this reduces friction of the teflon with air as well as many other types of friction besides just air.  I believe that the reason DuPont sponsored Jeff Gordon in Nascar is so they could work on a teflon based paint or surface coating for his car that would give the race team an invisible advantage.  Teflon is currently the most powerful passive WR in existance.

Nature also has active WR.  It is still "subconcious" but animals contain active WR.  On my bike I am always suprised with how little wind I feel on my exposed arms and legs.   Most of the resistance seems to come from my clothes.  Hair (and also skin to a lesser degree) generously donates electrons in triboelectric contact.  This is beneficial in my theory of friction to reduce friction or drag.   These donated electrons help repel air or wind resistance.  Since friction comes from the process of one material forcibly pulling electrons from another; if we rather give electrons freely, friction will be greatly reduced.  The way this happens in a hair/feather/skin/sweat gland system is the hair or feathers give electrons and sweat provides more electrons to the hair to replace what is lost.  Not only is water a resevoir and/or conductor for electrons, but also the process of water evaporating releases hydrogen bond energy, which likely is electrons or a negative polarity energy similar to electrons, which goes into the "pool" as water evaporates from the pool.  So basically in my theory of sweat; hydrogen bond energy generated by the evaporation of sweat is funneled into hair which then gives off the electrons to the air to minimize wind resistance.  So basically moving fast under your own power causes the body to heat and sweat and the wind causes the sweat to evaporate which in turn powers an active wind repulsion system through the hair or feathers.  Nature really is quite amazing.  The more we learn the more we realize our human technology is shit.

So like I said WR is creating a charge, actively or passively, on a surface which will tend to reduce air resistance.  One not so efficient embodiment of this is to simply charge the surface or skin of something, say clothing or metallic surfaces or skins or otherwise electrically conductive surfaces.  Say you have a wind repulsive wind breaker.  Or wind repulsive tents.  Or wind repellant skyscrapers or bridges, anything exposed to moving air is a candidate.  Preferably we would use a biomimetic method using evaporating water to power this, but actively creating a capacitive surface where the side exposed to the air is charged, preferably negatively, then you can have a very simple way to do this.  Simply connect a power supply or power storage device to the capacitive or conductive surface and you can achieve a wind repulsive surface.

Ultrawood 4: driftwood process

It turns out driftwood has some lignin removed wheras hemicellulose and cellulose remains unchanged.  We can use driftwood and then compress it or we can use driftwood as the starting material for any of the processes described in the ultrawood articles.

Using driftwood does not infringe on the Hu patents because the Hu patents describe lignin removal from natural wood, and driftwood is not a natural wood.  Also assuming extra lignin removal of driftwood will not be done, then no lignin removal step, chemical or otherwise, is needed at all.  Simply find driftwood, wash and soak in distilled water if desired, then press.

driftwood lignin removed